The Ottoman Empire was highly developed not only politically but also artistically and culturally. During the Ottoman rule, the empire created unique areas in art and broke new ground in the world. The art of calligraphy (hat) is also one of the branches of art in which the Ottomans were very successful and gave rare examples.
During the Abbasid period, Baghdad vizier and calligrapher Ibn Mukle developed a system that defines the main lines of writing with his efforts and innovations and played an essential role in developing the art of calligraphy. This type of writing spread over time and gained more importance with the Ottoman Empire taking its place in the stage of history. Ottoman and Iranian calligrapher masters continued to develop the art of calligraphy day by day, thus enabling it to spread to large masses. The art of calligraphy experienced its heyday during the time of Sheikh Hamdullah during the Ottoman period. In the following periods, many calligraphers developed this art and added innovations. In this way, the art of calligraphy has reached today.
The art of calligraphy, which has survived from the Ottoman Empire to the present day and developed with the master-apprentice relationship, is the art of fine writing formed around the Arabic letters. This art is performed with writing and lines. The art of calligraphy emerged between the 6th century and the 10th century, after the development of Arabic letters. The name given to the person who deals with the art of calligraphy in Ottoman Turkish is hattat.
Hat does not proceed under certain rules; it is done by the calligrapher’s own direction. It developed and became widespread through hand-written books before the invention of the printing press.
Calligraphy was adopted mainly by the Ottomans, and unique works of art were created with it. From souvenirs to the decoration of buildings, many places and objects are adorned with the art of calligraphy. Calligraphy masters paint the reflection of their souls in their works. They bring together the beauties, feelings, and thoughts that come from them.
Scissors, writing set, sized paper, ink, pencil sharpener, pencil box, lika (special silk added to ink), inkwell, stamp (glass tool used to give flatness to the paper), celi pen are the materials used in Ottoman calligraphy.